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Natural gas pipeline temperature

The efficient and effective movement of natural gas from producing regions to consumption regions requires an extensive and elaborate transportation system. In many instances, natural gas produced from a particular well will have to travel a great distance to reach its point of use.

The transportation system for natural gas consists of a complex network of pipelines, designed to quickly and efficiently transport natural gas from its origin, to areas of high natural gas demand. There are three major types of pipelines along the transportation route: the gathering system, the interstate pipeline system, and the distribution system.

The gathering system consists of low pressure, small diameter pipelines that transport raw natural gas from the wellhead to the processing plant.

Should natural gas from a particular well have high sulfur and carbon dioxide contents sour gasa specialized sour gas gathering pipe must be installed.

Sour gas is corrosive, thus its transportation from the wellhead to the sweetening plant must be done carefully. Pipelines can be characterized as interstate or intrastate.

Intrastate pipelines, on the other hand, transport natural gas within a particular state. This section will cover only the fundamentals of interstate natural gas pipelines, however the technical and operational details discussed are essentially the same for intrastate pipelines. The interstate natural gas pipeline network transports processed natural gas from processing plants in producing regions to those areas with high natural gas requirements, particularly large, populated urban areas.

As can be seen, the pipeline network extends across the entire country. Natural gas that is transported through interstate pipelines travels at high pressure in the pipeline, at pressures anywhere from to pounds per square inch psi. This reduces the volume of the natural gas being transported by up to timesas well as propelling natural gas through the pipeline. Interstate pipelines consist of a number of components that ensure the efficiency and reliability of a system that delivers such an important energy source year-round, twenty four hours a day, and includes a number of different components.

Transmission pipes can measure anywhere from 6 to 48 inches in diameter, depending on their function. Certain component pipe sections can even consist of small diameter pipe, as small as 0. However, this small diameter pipe is usually used only in gathering and distribution systems.

Mainline transmission pipes, the principle pipeline in a given system, are usually between 16 and 48 inches in diameter. Lateral pipelines, which deliver natural gas to or from the mainline, are typically between 6 and 16 inches in diameter. Most major interstate pipelines are between 24 and 36 inches in diameter.

In contrast, some distribution pipe is made of highly advanced plastic, because of the need for flexibility, versatility and the ease of replacement. Transmission pipelines are produced in steel mills, which are sometimes specialized to produce only pipeline.

There are two different production techniques, one for small diameter pipes and one for large diameter pipes. For large diameter pipes, from 20 to 42 inches in diameter, the pipes are produced from sheets of metal which are folded into a tube shape, with the ends welded together to form a pipe section.

Small diameter pipe, on the other hand, can be produced seamlessly. This involves heating a metal bar to very high temperatures, then punching a hole through the middle of the bar to produce a hollow tube. In either case, the pipe is tested before being shipped from the steel mill, to ensure that it can meet the pressure and strength standards for transporting natural gas.

Line pipe is also covered with a specialized coating to ensure that it does not corrode once placed in the ground.

The purpose of the coating is to protect the pipe from moisture, which causes corrosion and rusting. There are a number of different coating techniques. In the past, pipelines were coated with specialized coal tar enamel. Today, pipes are often protected with what is known as a fusion bond epoxy, which gives the pipe a noticeable light blue color.

In addition, cathodic protection is often used; which is a technique of running an electric current through the pipe to ward off corrosion and rusting. As mentioned, natural gas is highly pressurized as it travels through an interstate pipeline. To ensure that the natural gas flowing through any one pipeline remains pressurized, compression of this natural gas is required periodically along the pipe. This is accomplished by compressor stations, usually placed at 40 to mile intervals along the pipeline.

The natural gas enters the compressor station, where it is compressed by either a turbine, motor, or engine.In general it is common to set. Add standard and customized parametric components - like flange beams, lumbers, piping, stairs and more - to your Sketchup model with the Engineering ToolBox - SketchUp Extension - enabled for use with the amazing, fun and free SketchUp Make and SketchUp Pro. We don't collect information from our users.

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Please read AddThis Privacy for more information. If you want to promote your products or services in the Engineering ToolBox - please use Google Adwords. The tables below can be used for natural gas pipe sizing. Tag Search en: natural gas pipe tube sizing. Privacy We don't collect information from our users. Citation This page can be cited as Engineering ToolBox, Natural Gas - Pipe Sizing.

Modify access date. Scientific Online Calculator. Make Shortcut to Home Screen?Continued strength in natural gas production, along with reduced heating demand for natural gas as a result of relatively mild winter temperatures throughout most of the Lower 48 states, account for relatively higher inventory levels.

This heating season ended at the highest level for working natural gas stocks since —when working natural gas stocks totaled 2, Bcf. Working natural gas stocks totaled 3, Bcf entering the winter heating season in November —their highest levels since —after surpassing the five-year average for the first time in two years in October The —20 U.

During the heating season, natural gas production posted significant year-over-year increases that more than offset growth in natural gas consumption. Increased liquefied natural gas exports and increased power burn demand for natural gas electric generators exceeded the declines in natural gas consumption for residential and commercial customers, which resulted from the relatively mild winter temperatures.

This increase in natural gas production resulted in falling natural gas prices, and the surplus in working gas inventory climbed to Bcf by the end of the heating season. EIA does not expect the working gas inventory surplus to continue to grow during the refill season April 1- October These production declines, combined with continued strength in exports, will lead to smaller net injections into working gas.

The April STEO forecasts are subject to heightened uncertainty because of the economic slowdown and significant changes in energy markets recently. Prices fall despite widespread cooler-than-normal temperatures. Temperatures were generally cooler than normal, especially across the Great Plains.

California prices are down. The outage at the Roberson compressor station, located in southwestern Wyoming, has cut operational capacity by half, from 1. Northeast prices increase. Permian Basin prices rise as a force majeure is lifted. Supply rises slightly. Dry natural gas production remained unchanged week over week. Demand rises, driven by consumption in buildings. Total U.

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The power generation sector was flat, averaging Industrial sector consumption remained unchanged, averaging LNG exports increase week over week. The net injections into storage totaled 73 Bcf for the week ending April 10, compared with the five-year —19 average net injections of 27 Bcf and last year's net injections of 73 Bcf during the same week.

Working natural gas stocks totaled 2, Bcf, which is Bcf more than the five-year average and Bcf more than last year at this time. According to The Desk survey of natural gas analysts, estimates of the weekly net change to working natural gas stocks ranged from a net injection of 39 Bcf to 78 Bcf, with a median estimate of 67 Bcf. Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Download figure data. Natural Gas. Find by Alphabetical Recurring Tag Cloud.

Heating season withdrawals Working gas inventories. Rigs graph Rigs table.

natural gas pipeline temperature

Storage graph Stocks table History table. Working gas in underground storage Stocks billion cubic feet Bcf.

Working gas in underground storage Historical comparisons.Log in to your subscription Username. Peer reviewed only Published between: Published from year: and Published to year: Advanced search Show search help. Rock Mechanics Symposium and 5th U. Numerical diffusion and the impact of ignoring the heat capacity of the pipe and ground are examined.

An RC time constant formulation for the ground around the pipe is presented. Simulations examine temperature front propagation and pressure induced thermal transients. Introduction Thermal effects can significantly influence both steady state conditions and the propagation of transients through the pipeline.

Often neglected is the impact of the transient response of the pipeline surroundings on the propagation of transients through the pipeline.

It is tempting to focus is on the transient modeling of the pipeline fluid without considering the transient modeling of the pipeline surroundings. Using buried natural gas pipelines as an example, this paper will demonstrate how the pipeline surroundings influence the in-pipe transients. Because of ground effects, the time required for a buried pipeline to move from one steady temperature profile to another is often measured in weeks or even months.

In this approach, the heat flux to the ground is represented by a heat transfer coefficient HTC. We will examine the validity of this approximation both through analysis and simulation. We will demonstrate that the time response of the pipe wall and the ground can be represented by a characteristic time constant.

We will show how this time constant can be computed from the density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the pipe and ground. This paper also examines the numerical diffusion that results from modeling the pipeline using an Eulerian formulation.

The Eulerian formulation represents the pipeline state at fixed points along the pipeline.

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The alternative, a Lagrangian formulation, represents the pipeline state using points that move at the velocity of the fluid. We examine numerical diffusion by simulating the pipeline adiabatically i. Using this approach, we can observe how numerical diffusion affects the modeling of a temperature front moving through the pipeline independently from other real smoothing affects such as the absorption of the fluid heat by the pipe wall and ground. After demonstrating the very real effects of numerical diffusion, we move on to demonstrate how the pipe wall and pipe surroundings modify the transient thermal effects.

We demonstrate that, at least for buried pipelines, the thermal mass of the pipe and ground have such great affect that numerical diffusion can in fact be dealt with by appropriate selection of the modeling distance step. Three pipeline conditions are examined: 1. Other Resources. About us Contact us Help Terms of use.

natural gas pipeline temperature

Publishers Content Coverage Privacy. Administration log in. Sheriff's Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Geophysics, fourth edition.Intended for use in making natural gas pipeline design calculations, you can buy a convenient natural gas pipeline flow calculation spreadsheet for a very reasonable price. This spreadsheet makes calculations with the Weymouth equation, the Panhandle A equation, and the Panhandle B equation, and is available in either U.

Read on for information about a natural gas pipeline flow calculation spreadsheet. Several different equations are used for natural gas pipeline flow calculations. For longer pipelines with larger pressure drop, the three equations that are in most common use are the Weymouth equation, the Panhandle A equation, and the Panhandle B equation.

The choice among these three equations depends upon the pipeline diameter, the pipe length, and the average pipeline pressure. The Weymouth equation is:. It can be used to calculate the natural gas pipeline flow rate with the Weymouth equation, the Panhandle A equation and the Panhandle B equation.

This Excel spreadsheet, as well as others for pipe flow calculations, is available in either U.

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Crane Co. Bengtson, Harlan H. You must be logged in to post a comment.

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Choice of Equations for Natural Gas Pipeline Flow Calculations Several different equations are used for natural gas pipeline flow calculations.

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Students Click Here. Related Projects. I am trying to plot a temperature profile along a buried natural gas pipeline. Gas temperature will depend on two factors: - Heat exchange with surroundings - JT effect from pressure drop You can calculate this with high accuracy using e.

HYSYS or a hydralic simulation tool e. Some may consider this overkill but i think it give you certaincy with a modest effort. Best regards Morten. Look on the web for "Schorre gas temperature equation" and you'll find a wealth of resources on this topic. Thanks for the reference ione, I haven't seen that equation in a while.

I just finished reading several of the papers that Google pointed me to and one thing that jumped out at me is the lengths involved. All of the papers show two cases, first a "winter" case with a gas temperature of F and a ground temperature of 62F.

Natural Gas Pipelines Operations

The second is a "summer" case with a gas temperature of F and a ground temperature of 80F. After the thermal entry length, heat transfer is too slow to be a practical consideration.

So in the first case we reach the thermal entry length at What I found interesting is that you reach these values at around 30 miles and 50 miles respectively. These numbers are far longer than I've ever observed in the field. I have frequently compared temperatures at meter stations on wellheads to the temperature of gas entering compressor stations less than 5 miles away. Two things I've noticed is that temperature at the compressor station is very constant winter to summer and it is constant regardless of the mix of inlet temperatures turning large high-temperature sources on or off does not seem to affect station inlet temperature.

Far be it from me to suggest that my observations in any way trump a graduate student's manipulation of "fourth order ODE's", but I just can't buy either the lengths involved or the shape of their curves.Jump to content. Low Flow in Pipes - posted in Ankur's blog.

Posted 09 March - AM.

Temperature Drop In Natural Gas Pipe Line

The pipeline is having a length of nearly m from the natural gas suppliers terminal point to Gas Turbine and the pipeline is in a trench. Also i would like to know can we calculate the temperature drop in natural gas pipeline in hysis. If so please please let me know how to do it. Posted 09 March - PM. Any temperature drop in a gas line occurs due to gas expansion from pressure drop.

However, such a temperature drop would require a significant pressure drop. For a length of m the pressure drop would be very insignificant and as such the temperature drop would also be negligible. However, if you are feeding natural gas to a gas turbine, you need to maintain the gas temperature at least 20 deg C above the hydrocarbon dewpoint of the natural gas often a gas temperature of 60 deg C is maintained.

In fact upstream of the gas turbine, a gas conditioning skid is provided which consists of a Knock Out Drum, Filter Coalescer and a Gas Heater in sequence. The gas conditioning skid ensures that the gas being fed to the gas turbine is absolutely dry, free of any fine solids and at a temperature well above its hydrocarbon dewpoint.

Posted 10 March - AM. Our scope starts after Metering Station. The length of the pipe line from Metering station till Electric Gas heater is m.

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After Electric Gas heater there is no problem. But from Metering Station till Electric Gas heater, since the minimum temperature of the gas is 10 degC and the minimum ambient temperature is -6 degC, are there any chances of the gas temperature dropping. If the temperature drops significantly because of surroundings temperature what can be done?

And also we received comment from our owner that "waterbath heater is more efficient for continuous operation compared to electric heater".

natural gas pipeline temperature

What is your opinion? I have gone through your attachments. But the Hysis output is for a buried pipe. But in my case, some part of the pipe is in trench not buried and some part of the pipe is on sleepers above ground. The purpose of the electric gas heater is to heat up the gas to maintain temperature sufficiently above the HC dewpoint. Your electric gas heater duty must be specified for the minimum gas temperature or in other words the maximum delta T based on minimum gas temperature.

If you do this, you don't need to be concerned about the temperature drop of gas from the metering station to the electric gas heater. The practice that I have seen being followed downstream of the gas heater is to provide electric heat tracing of the line up to the gas turbine to prevent the temperature dropping again.

Insulation could also be provided with due care to quality of insulation in terms of having good weathering resistance. As far as water bath heaters is concerned, they work absolutely fine and as such I haven't encountered any problems.

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If water is not a problem then in my opinion a water bath heater is a better choice compared to an electric heater. Thats why "User specified" was selected. Although i'm not sure what values would be suitable in your case. Probably some past data will be helpful. For the parts above ground, go to "insert segment", then modify the length and elevation change. Or, you could just add another "PIPE" segment. Posted 19 March - PM.